Electric Discharge Machining: What Is It? Types & Advantages & Applications

Electric Discharge Machining What Is It Types & Advantages & Applications

In the unconventional process of electrical discharge machining, or EDM, material is removed from a workpiece using thermal energy. EDM doesn’t require mechanical force to remove material, similar to techniques like laser cutting. Due to this, it is regarded as non-traditional as opposed to, say, processing done using cutting tools.

EDM is widely used in the tool and mold industry because it can be used to work with challenging materials like titanium or extremely complex shapes that are challenging to mill.

Please keep reading so that I can show you more detailed information.

What Is EDM?

Term like spark machining, die sinking, wire erosion, or spark eroding may have been used to describe something to you. These terms are sometimes used by engineers and producers to describe electrical discharge machining (EDM). Simply put, EDM is the process of removing extra material from a workpiece while using thermal energy.

The EDM process does not require mechanical force, as was already mentioned. By using electrical discharges alone during the fabrication process, engineers are guaranteed to achieve the desired shapes. It is an extremely accurate procedure that doesn’t involve using a tool on the workpiece. EDM is frequently the best option when it comes to forming intricate shapes or working with tough materials like titanium.

The EDM Process

The Ecyclopædia Britannica gives a short explanation of EDM:

“An electrode made of graphite or another soft metal is used in electrical discharge machining (EDM) to direct high-frequency electrical spark discharges that are directed at electrically conductive materials like hardened steel or carbide.”

To put it more simply, electrical discharge machining is a manufacturing process that precisely removes material from conductive materials using an electrode. The electrode leaves a negative imprint in the workpiece, much like pushing a form into a pliable material. The physical procedure is a little more complicated: a discharge takes place in a tiny space between the workpiece and the electrode, removing material by melting or vaporizing it. The workpiece and electrode must both be immersed in a dielectric fluid for this procedure to work.

This process is based on the idea that material can be eroded by carefully controlled electric sparks. Throughout this process, the workpiece and electrode are not in contact. There is a space between them that is about the thickness of a human hair. Despite the small amount of material that is removed by a single spark, the discharge happens roughly several 100,000 times per second.

While the electrode is moved closer to the workpiece, the electric field in the gap, also known as spark gap, increases until it reaches the breakdown volume. It is essential for this process that the fluid in which the discharge takes place is nonconductive or dielectric. Small quantities of material are melted away by the discharge’s intense heating of the material. The constant flow of the dielectric fluid eliminates this surplus material. During the machining process, the liquid is also helpful for cooling. Additionally, it is essential for spark control.

The Mechanism Of Electrical Discharge Machining

Although the definition might seem straightforward, the actual process is a little bit more intricate. Using EDM, material is removed from a workpiece through a series of repetitive, high-velocity current discharges between electrodes. Using a dielectric fluid, these electrodes are separated. The dielectric fluid is then exposed to a voltage. Remember that only electrically conductive materials can be manufactured using EDM.

One of those electrodes can transform into a different shape to serve the desired function. This electrode is the workpiece electrode or the “anode.” The other electrode is the tool-electrode or the “cathode.” This process’ fundamental idea involves using a controlled electric spark to erode the material. The two electrodes need to stay separate for this to happen.

Potential difference is applied in pulse form across the workpiece and electrode. The electric field intensifies as the electrode approaches the workpiece and fills the tiny space between them. This continues until the breakdown volume is reached.

Extreme heating of the material results from the electrical discharge. Some of the material’s components melt away as a result of heating. The excess material is removed with the aid of a constant dielectric fluid flow. During the machining process, the liquid also helps keep things cool.

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Types Of Electric Discharge Machining

Wire Cutting Electrical Discharge Machining

Wire erosion, wire burning, and EDM are other names for the process of cutting objects with thin wires. This type uses a wire as an electrode, and while processing, the wire is continuously fed from the automatic feed with the spool. If you need to perform the cutting operation in the middle of the object, you can punch a small hole in it using an EDM, then pass a wire through it to begin the electric discharge machining process. The wire can be fixed using a diamond guide, and ionized water is used as the liquid, even though brass or copper is the typical material for wires.

Sinker Discharge Machining

Die, conventional, or Ram EDM are other names for the sinker EDM. Die EDM enables the user to create intricate shapes. With this technique, the electrode (typically made of graphite or copper) must first be pre-shaped into the desired shape before being sunk into the article to create a negative of the original shape.

Hole Drilling Electric Discharge Machining

When compared to traditional drilling techniques, the drilling EDM process can drill very small, deep holes. Additionally, debarring is not necessary for EDM drilling. The dielectric fluid is fed through the tubular electrodes themselves during this procedure.

Electrical discharge machining can typically be used to process all conductive materials. Metals or metal alloys like hardened steel, titanium, and composites are common materials. Graphite or copper are typically used as the electrode materials in electrospray EDM. The electrode’s conductivity and corrosion resistance are the primary determinants of the electrode material. Graphite has the advantage of being more easily processed than copper. Copper, however, has excellent strength and electrical conductivity. Brass is a copper and zinc alloy that is frequently used for wire EDM or small tubular electrodes. Because new wires are continuously fed while cutting, unlike electrodes used for sinking, EDM wires do not need to have good electrical resistance properties.

Electric Discharge Machining What Is It Types & Advantages & Applications
Electric Discharge Machining: What Is It? Types & Advantages & Applications

Electrical Discharge Machining Advantages

Manufacturing with EDM has a number of distinctive benefits. Some of them include:

Work On Any Type Of Electrically Conductive Material

The first thing that comes to mind when you think of EDM manufacturing is its versatility with regards to materials. EDM is always the best process, provided that your material is electrically conductive. As a result, parts that are challenging for conventional machining techniques can be machined. Titanium and tungsten carbide components are among them.

No Mechanical Force Is Involved

The fact that the workpiece is not subjected to mechanical force is a crucial additional benefit. As a result, creating fragile outlines is not a concern. Because there is no requirement for intense cutting force prior to material removal, this becomes simple. There is no mechanical stress because the tool and the workpiece never make contact.

Enables Various Shapes And Depths

Reaching shapes and depths with a cutting tool seems to be impossible with EDM. It is a powerful deep processing technique with extremely high tool length to diameter ratios. The EDM process makes it simple to cut deep ribs, narrow slots, and sharp internal corners.

Encourages Better Surface Finish

Manufacturers contend that EDM frequently produces an injection molding surface finish that is superior to conventional techniques. Due to the high precision and fine finishes that the EDM process provides, this might be the case.

Work On Hardened Material

Before the workpiece is hardened, additional conventional machining operations must be completed. EDM, on the other hand, performs flawlessly on hardened materials. Due to this, it is simple to prevent any possible heat-related deformation.

When it comes to producing high-precision parts with the desired shapes, EDM manufacturing is undoubtedly a great option. Consider EDM or choose RapidDirect, which specializes in high precision rapid prototyping services, if you need to produce complex parts.

Applications Of Electrical Discharge Machining

EDM is particularly well-known for small-volume manufacturing, which enables a number of processes. Among them are milling, turning, drilling small holes, and other operations. In addition, a variety of industries, including the aerospace and automotive sectors, can benefit from this special process.

Being able to create unique and precise shapes, this technique helps in the following applications:

Injection Molding

EDM is typically required to produce molds with the proper dimension, depth, and shape. It is the primary injection molding technique that mold producers use. The primary type employed in this instance is wire EDM.

This is typically the best method to employ because injection molding calls for a variety of delicate and intricate workpieces. Additionally, it frequently results in an EDM surface finish with high precision.

Small Hole Drilling

Regardless of the hardness of the material, electrical discharge machining is a quick and effective way to drill precise deep, small holes.

Brass electrode tubes are used during the hole drilling process to direct electrical discharges onto the material. As a result, holes of different sizes can be made. It can create holes on incline faces and in other awkward positions, which is exciting.

Die Casting

Die-making applications benefit greatly from EDM as well. Extreme accuracy is needed when producing highly customized dies. These dies have intricate details like deep ribs, sharp internal corners, and other features.

Additionally, extremely hard steel alloys are frequently used in the construction of dies. Using conventional techniques, it is typically more difficult to machine these alloys. Prior to heat treatment, the hard steel alloys might need to be finished, which could compromise the precision of the details. Using the EDM process is therefore more appropriate.


For machining applications that require a lot of effort, electrical discharge machining remains the best option. Whereas conventional methods are challenging or impossible, it aids engineers in reshaping materials. High-quality components are produced as a result of this distinctive process.

Your manufacturing needs are perfectly met by RapidDirect’s EDM procedures. With the help of this method, we can produce cutting that is extremely precise and it is effective with any conductive material. No matter what parts you need or what applications you have, this will allow us to better serve you. Today, upload your design file to get an immediate quote. All of our services are offered at affordable rates.

Many thanks for reading.

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